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Two Cheers for Democracy

:start::writings::two cheers for democracy:

Further Notices


Two Cheers for Democracy, first published by Edward Arnold 1951, contains essays, articles and broadcasts written by E. M. Forster between 1936 and 1951.

The opening section, "The Second Darkness," concentrates on the war which began for Great Britain in 1939, though earlier elsewhere, and which is still going on. Subjects such as Anti-Semitism, the Nazis, Liberty, the Censorship are here discussed. The climate is political [...].

The second section, "What I Believe," covers the same period as the first and sometimes the same subjects, but its climate is ethical and aesthetic. It opens with an essay which may be regarded as a key to the book. [E. M. Forster, Two Cheers for Democracy (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965) 11.]

Forster splits the second section into three parts: "Art in General," "The Arts in Action" and "Places." The first section is not only political but also, at times, philosophical--first questioning but then, most often, supporting the thoughts and believes of the great liberal individualist E. M. Forster. This seemed necessary in World War II. In 1951, Forster has gained hope again. He writes: "Human life is still active, still carrying about with it unexplored riches and unused methods of release. The darkness that troubles us and tried to degrade us may thin out" (TC 12).


  • Part I. The Second Darkness

    • The Last Parade

    • The Menace to Freedom

    • Jew-Consciousness

    • Our Deputation

    • Racial Exercise

    • Post-Munich

    • Gerald Heard

    • They Hold their Tongues

    • Three Anti-Nazi Broadcasts

      • 1. Culture and Freedom

      • 2. What has Germany done to the Germans?

      • 3. What would Germany do to Us?

    • Tolerance

    • Ronald Kidd

    • The Tercentenary of the Areopagitica

    • The Challenge of Our Time

    • George Orwell

  • Part II. What I Believe

      • What I Believe

    • Art in General

      • Anonymity: An Inquiry

      • Art for Art's Sake

      • The Duty of Society to the Artist

      • Does Culture Matter?

      • The Raison d'Être of Criticism in the Arts

      • The C Minor of that Life

      • Not Listening to Music

      • Not Looking at Pictures

    • The Arts in Action

      • John Skelton

      • Julius Caesar

      • The Stratford Jubilee of 1769

      • Gibbon and his Autobiographies

      • Voltaire and Frederick the Great

      • George Crabbe and Peter Grimes

      • Bishop Jebb's Book

      • Henry Thornton

      • William Arnold

      • 'Snow' Wedgwood

      • William Barnes

      • Three Stories by Tolstoy

      • Edward Carpenter

      • Webb and Webb

      • A Book that Influenced Me

      • Our Second Greatest Novel?

      • Gide and George

      • Gide's Death

      • Romain Rolland and the Hero

      • A Whiff of D'Annunzio

      • The Complete Poems of C. P. Cavafy

      • Virgina Woolf

      • Two Books by T. S. Eliot

      • The Ascent of F.6

      • The Enchafèd Flood

      • Forrest Reid

      • English Prose between 1918 and 1939

      • An Outsider on Poetry

      • Mohammed Iqbal

      • Syed Ross Masood

      • A Duke Remembers

      • Mrs Miniver

      • In My Library

      • The London Library

    • Places

      • A Letter to Madan Blanchard

      • India Again

      • Luncheon at Pretoria

      • The United States

      • Mount Lebanon

      • Ferney

      • Clouds Hill

      • Cambridge

      • London is a Muddle

      • The Last of Abinger



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